©SCS Journal ISSN 2225- 2215
Study of Changing Societies: Corruption Study
General Editors: Olga Guzhva
Responsible editor for special issue: Prof. Jonathan Mendilow
Prof Indira Carr , Prof Tina Uys, Prof Michal Klima, Dr Aleksandr Kryuchkov, Dr Irina Soldatenko,Prof Olexandr Serdyuk , Dr Elena Volaynskaya, Dr Igor Osyka, Sergej Muravjov, Prof Marco A. Gandásegui, Jr. , Prof Michael Pinto-Duschinsky , Dr Anna Markovska , Dr Bagrat M. Harutyunyan
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Dr. Mikhail Beznosov, Dr. Roman Sheiko, Dr. Anna Amelina, Prof. Alpaslan Özerdem, Dr. Biswajit Mohapatra, Dr. Vincenzo Cicchelli, Prof. Vittorio Cotesta, Dr. Miŝo Dokmanovic, Prof. Jan M. Fritz, Dr. David Galbreath, Dr.David Görömbölyi, Dr. Boyd Johnson, Dr. Iryna Kosulya, Dr. Florent Marciacq, Dr. Javier Garcia Marin, Prof. Jonathan Mendilow, Dr. David Ondracka, Prof. Olexandr Serdyuk, Dr. Nataliya Velikaya, Prof. Francesco Villa, Dr. John P. Willerton, Dr. Martin Carrier, Prof. Yuriy Dubenskiy, Prof. Paulette Kurzer, Prof. William Dixon, Prof. Kostas Ant Lavdas, Dr. Muhammad Tahir Tabassum, Akbar Valadbigi, Prof Dr Svetla Koleva, Dr Arthur Atanesyan
In this issue
José G. Vargas-Hernández
The multiple faces of corruption: typology, form, and levels p.3-27
This paper is aimed to analyze the multiple forms and faces of corruption, its typology and levels. The analysis begins reviewing a typology categorizing political corruption, economic corruption and public administration corruption and showing some examples of typologies, establishing the levels of corruption and indicating where can be encountered. It is concluded that corruption is just as multifaceted concept as there are societies and economic and political systems, embracing from the broad concept of corruption to the narrow legal concept of bribery. However, it is difficult to assess the overall levels of corruption phenomena based on empirical or perceived data which do not reflects the realities of corruption world.
Keywords: Corruption, forms of corruption, levels of corruption.
The system of a corruption action p. 28-46
The author analyses cases of corrupt practices, the ways of realization of corruption deals, typical participants of corrupt relationships, their roles, modes of behaviour, reasons, attitude towards corrupt practices, evaluation of the significance of corrupt practices for the society.
Keywords: corruption action attitude towards corrupt practices, corrupt practices.
Corruption: A Structural Defect p. 47-66
This paper delves into the problem of corruption in democracies recognizing it as a structural defect. It examines the prospect of structures working their effects through the process of socialization that limits and moulds behaviour of units. It argues that ‘democracy’ is a sound system that guarantees the units/voters sufficient opportunities to exercise their preferences and shape the outcome; however the structure of institutions acts as a ‘selector’. It determines the rules of the game and encourages conformity by punishing non-adherence. Thus the short-term incentive to re-elect even the corrupt politician gets enhanced while the gain of rebelling against the dominant forces is diluted by delay in happy outcomes. Socialization of voters and structural limitations become the two most important variables in determining if corrupt politicians will be punished by the voters in elections or not. Case studies of two states in India; Bihar and Himachal Pradesh are used. Having realized that socialization takes place within segments, the level is compared. The result shows that in sum individual enticements can overpower moral and ethical notions in the absence of appropriate socialization.
Keywords: Corruption, structure, socialization, India, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh.
Amr G.E Sabet
Corruption, governance and collective sanctions: can a wicked problem be tamed? p. 67-104
Research Question: Tackling a problem requires mostly, an ability to read it, conceptualize it, represent it, define it, and then applying the necessary tools and mechanisms to solve it. This may sound self-evident except when the problem to be engaged happens to be “complex,” “ill-structured,” and/or “wicked.” Corruption, defined in this paper in terms of bribery and/or extortion, is one of those kinds of problems. Both in its global and national manifestations it is ill-structured. Where it is structural in nature, endemic and pervasive, it is perhaps even wicked. Qualities of the kind impose modest expectations regarding possibilities of any definitive solution to this insidious phenomenon. If so, it may not suffice to address the problem of corruption using existing categories of law and/or good governance, which overlook the “long-term memory” of the collective and cultural specific dimensions of the subject.
Research Findings/Insights: The above socio-historical conditions require focusing on the interactive and self-reproducing networks of corruption and attempting to ‘subvert’ that phenomenon’s entire institutionalized matrix. Concepts such as collective responsibility, collective punishment and sanctions are introduced as relevant categories in the structural, as well as behavioral, subversion or ‘unfreezing’ of the path dependent aspects of corruption.
Theoretical/Academic Implications & Practitioner/Policy Implications: These concepts may help in the evolving of a new perspective on corruption fighting strategies. They may also form the foundation of future empirical studies regarding their effectiveness in fighting corruption.
Keywords: bribery; collective responsibility; collective sanctions; corruption; governance; modified vendetta; path dependency; wicked problem.
Political Parties in a Clientelistic Democracy p. 105-128
It is clear from political science literature that political parties are not static entities. Similar to other political institutions, they tend to transform with time, in response to changes in their surrounding environment. If the economic, social, cultural and political parameters in society are to substantially change, it is possible to deduce a change in the role of a political party and its internal organisational structure.In the region of Central Europe, Czechoslovakia – and after 1993 the Czech Republic – presents a special case, where during political and economic transformation next to general features, specific factors were also enforced, which eventually influenced the set-up and formation of parties in their early stages. It is left to consideration and further scrutiny to decide whether the unrepeatable environment of the Czech-Moravian melting pot, characterised by the political culture of non-ideological and unscrupulous pragmatism, has not cultivated the “clientelisticform”of political party.
Keywords: clientelistiсdemocracy, corruption, political parties
Corruption and campaign findings: a Burkean perspective p. 129-145
Keywords: corruption, camping funding, political corruption
Daniel Buquet, Rafael Piñeiro, Richard Salvat, Lucía Selios, Daniela Vairo
Corruption and politics in Uruguay: from particularism to universalism p. 146- 169
Transparency scores in Uruguay have improved in the last fifteen years in both absolute and comparative terms. This paper argues that this change is the result of a long-run process of transformation in Uruguayan politics from competitive particularism to an open access regime. First, this paper briefly reviews the political and institutional changes that led governance in Uruguay to be based on universalistic norms. Next, it uses public opinion and elite survey data to provide descriptive evidence about citizen perceptions of levels of corruption. Third, the paper uses media data to explore the place that corruption held in the public agenda during the last fifteen years. Finally, using court records, it evaluates the efficacy of existing structures to punish abuses. These analyses help to clarify the main features that lie behind the categorization of Uruguay as a contemporary achiever in terms of government transparency.
Keywords: Uruguay. Corruption. Transparency. Perceptions. Linkages. Institutions.
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