©SCS Journal  ISSN  2225- 2215

Study of Changing Societies: Comparative and  Interdisciplinary Focus,

Vol. 1' 2018 OPEN ISSUE 

Editorial Board:

Dr. Artem Kliuchnikov, Dr. Mihai Bocarnea, Regent University (USA),Dr. Scott Livingston, Livingston Consulting Group (USA),Dr. Vern Ludden, Center for Leadership and Virtues (USA), Dr. Ken Rauch, Educational Consultant (USA), Dr. Samir Moussalli, Huntingdon College (USA), Dr. Jim "Gus" Gustafson, Center for Values-Driven Leadership (USA), Dr. Rob Elkington, Yorkville University (USA), Dr. Joanne Barnes, Indiana Wesleyan University (USA)Dr. Marta Bennett, Kenya International Leadership University (Kenya), Dr. Mike Linville, Managing Editor - for Special Issue Dr. Carolyn Roark, Submissions Editor


In this issue


DOI10.1517/scs-2018-001© SCS Journal

Russia and Ukraine are two countries that have shared much history together and are sometimes understood as one unified entity. However, these are two different countries with two different cultures, languages, and mentalities. While Russia has been in the focus of leadership research, there are no organizational leadership studies on Ukraine. The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to explore, describe, and define attributes of an effective leader in Russian and Ukrainian organizations through the lens of Russian and Ukrainian employees and leaders in national organizations and then to compare attributes of an effective leader in Russian and Ukrainian organizations. The research employed phenomenological qualitative inquiry as it focused on the essence of leadership phenomena in Russia and Ukraine and safeguarded against the predetermined understanding of leadership. This research resulted in the development of 10 effective leader attributes that are common both for Russia and Ukraine: (a) authoritarianism, (b) paternalism, (c) professionalism, (d) intellect, (e) laissez-faire, (f) charisma, (g) enthusiasm, (h) morality, (i) trust, and (j) freedom—and two attributes particular to Ukraine only: (a) organizational skills and (b) responsibility. However, the main layer of differences was discovered in the categories that comprised the attributes.

Keywords: organizational leadership, leadership, leader attributes.

Stan Amaladas, Ray Becvar   Where Nothing is Felt, Nothing Matters: Facilitating Healing in an Era of Global Violence p. 40-79  Download full pdf

DOI: 10.2478/scs-2018-0002© SCS Journal

In our era of global violence and counter-violence, where acts of violence are received with further acts of violence that are motivated by the malice of rage, we appear to be prisoners trapped in a cage. Does it have to remain this way? Beginning with the premise that the fundamental act of leadership is to influence people to be aware of what they feel so that they can be moved to purposeful action, we speak to the urgent and important work of leaders and followers to feel the need to terminate ongoing cycles of global violence, for the sake of lifting people above the conflicts that tear a society apart and unite them in pursuits of objectives worthy of their best efforts. Why? Because where nothing is felt, nothing matters. Where nothing is felt, there will be no real change. For the sake of real change, we also argue that we will be better served, if we intentionally attend to the patterns that connect, rather than divide, Western and non-Western/African/Indigenous ways of thinking.  Within the context of violence, we offer a way to listen to the healing power of stories which cuts across time and cultures.  For the sake of pursuing objectives that are worthy of our best efforts, we also focus on the stories of public/ political apologies and the madness of forgiving the unforgivable atrocities of humankind.

 Keywords: counter-violence, acts of violence, leadership, leadership challenges.


WHERE FOOLS RUSH IN: Why Armed Intervention Failed to Create Political Reconciliation in Somalia p. 80-103 Download full pdf

©Dr. Joseph P. Alessi instructor of Leadership Studies, Department of Interdisciplinary Programs at Slippery Rock University


To be successful in today's world, leaders must understand the idea of culture. When the word culture is associated with leadership, many might first think of the culture that leadership creates within the framework of an organization. But for leaders who must operate in a tumultuous world connected by modern media, the word literally refers to the understanding of the people and places where they intend to inject themselves. Where Fools Rush In is a study of the failed U.N. and U.S. interventions to create stability and political reconciliation in Somalia from 1992 to 1995, due to the cultural misunderstanding of U.N. and U.S. leaders that created flawed mission objectives. World leaders must make difficult decisions when intervening in the political and social strife of nations when faced with the reality of human catastrophe and genocide. The questions will always remain as to if, how much, and what kind of intervention must occur. The choices are simple: standby, do nothing and watch, or intervene. What international leaders must understand is that, regardless of the boundaries and governmental systems implanted in former colonial and Cold War territories, the people developed their own systems of social organization and governance that predated European or U.S intrusion. When chaos erupts in these areas and the vestiges of these former systems collapse, the indigenous people more often than not return to their deeply entrenched cultural systems to create stability in these regions. Therefore, it is paramount for intervening parties to fully understand these cultural systems and implications if they hope to achieve any level of success. Ultimately, U.N. and U.S. leaders failed in Somalia because they failed to understand the people and their culture. Rather, they ignored it and viewed the situation from purely an ethnocentric western political perspective. 


Keywords: Leadership, Somalia, Boutros-Ghali, UNOSOM, Intervention, Peace, Reconciliation


Decolonizing Leadership Studies: Overcoming Obstacles Toward an Intercultural Dialogue Between Knowledges  p. 104-127 Download full pdf

© Toni Jimenez-Luque, Ph.D.Gonzaga University

The academic discipline of leadership has developed in Western countries over the past decades with a US/Western Europe-centered perspective, implying that leadership theory is universal regardless of different cultural perspectives that go beyond the Western canon. In fact, current mainstream leadership theories are rather ethnocentric and local, and many of them still reflect a Eurocentric colonial mentality of dominance and power. Therefore, the purpose with this paper is to explore the effects of Modernity and colonialism on society’s relationships to identify the causes that hinder an effective intercultural dialogue in postcolonial contexts. This paper considers Decolonial Leadership as a new model that goes beyond Eurocentric approaches in the field and points to further research that is needed to fully develop a broader and more inclusive paradigm of leadership.

 Keywords: intercultural dialogue, decolonizing leadership


Global Leadership Competencies for Undergraduate Students p. 128-169 Download full pdf

©  Sabrena O'Keefe, PhD

Global leadership has been a growing area of research as our world becomes interconnected. Employers have also expressed a skill crisis regarding students graduating from college without the necessary global leadership skills. However, there are often not enough resources at institutions of higher education to add specific co-curricular programs around global leadership. At the same time, many institutions have begun to use the Student Leadership Competencies (Seemiller, 2013) as learning outcomes for their co-curricular programs. This research study aimed to combine the concepts of global leadership and the Student Leadership Competencies so that students have the opportunity to develop global leadership competencies on their own. This was done through the use of subject matter experts and results of an exploratory factor analysis. There were six constructs discovered through this process: Adapting (Responding to Change & Self-Development), Diversity, Interpersonal Impact (Productive Relationships & Positive Attitude), Perspective-taking (Self-Understanding, Empathy, & Others’ Perspectives), Resiliency, and Responding to Ambiguity. A global leadership self-assessment instrument was also created as a tool to utilize this framework.


Keywords: global leadership; Student Leadership Competencies; career readiness; leadership competency models; globalization; self-assessment; O’Keefe Global Leadership Self-Assessment


© SCSJournal